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Jane Austen
Author of Original

Jane Austen was an English novelist whose books, set among the English middle and upper classes, are notable for their wit, social observation and insights into the lives of early 19th century women. Jane Austen was born on 16 December 1775 in the village of Steventon in Hampshire. She was one of eight children of a clergyman and grew up in a close-knit family.

She began to write as a teenager. In 1801 the family moved to Bath. After the death of Jane's father in 1805 Jane, her sister Cassandra and their mother moved several times eventually settling in Chawton, near Steventon. Jane's brother Henry helped her negotiate with a publisher and her first novel, Sense and Sensibility, appeared in 1811. Her next novel Pride and Prejudice, which she described as "her own darling child" received highly favourable reviews.

Mansfield Park was published in 1814, then Emma in 1816. Emma was dedicated to the prince regent, an admirer of her work. All of Jane Austen's novels were published anonymously. In 1816, Jane began to suffer from ill-health, probably due to Addison's disease. She travelled to Winchester to receive treatment, and died there on 18 July 1817. Two more novels, Persuasion and Northanger Abbey were published posthumously and a final novel was left incomplete.


Mikhail Bulgakov
Author of Original

The original author of The Master and Margarita. Mikhail Bulgakov (1891–1940) was a Soviet Russian novelist and playwright. He is best known for his novel The Master and Margarita, considered by many to be one of the masterpieces of the 20th century.


Arthur Conan Doyle
Author of Original

The original author of Hound of the Baskervilles, A Study in Scarlet, The Sign of the Four and The Valley of Fear. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) was a Scottish physician and writer.  Through his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, he is generally considered a major innovator in the genre of crime fiction.


Joseph Conrad
Author of Original

The original author of Heart of Darkness. Joseph Conrad's visionary take on imperialism evident in The Heart of Darkness inspired Francis Ford Coppola’s Vietnam war epic Apocalypse Now. His unique story drew on his experiences of working on the Congo River in 1890. Conrad was born Józef Konrad in Berdychev, Poland.


Miguel de Cervantes
Author of Original

The author of Don Quixote, widely considered to be a cornerstone of Western literature and regarded by many as both the first example of the modern novel and the most famous book of Spanish origin.


Charles Dickens
Author of Original

The original author of A Tale of Two Cities. Charles Dickens, the most popular English novelist of the Victorian era, continues to capture the imagination of modern audiences. His novels include Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, Bleak House, Little Dorrit, Nicholas Nickleby, The Picwick Papers and A Tale of Two Cities, a bloody tale set before and during the French Revolution.


Fyodor Dostoevsky
Author of Original

The original author of Crime and Punishment. Doestoevsky was sent to study engineering at St Petersburg Academy at the age of 17, but pursued independent interests in literature and politics.

His brief devotion to political radicalism in Tsarist Russia nearly cost him his life (a death sentence in 1849 was commuted to four years' hard labour at the last minute); his literary dedication – in such extraordinary novels as The Idiot, Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov – has guaranteed his immortality.


Victor Hugo
Author of Original

Victor Hugo (1802-1885) was a French poet, novelist and dramatist. A central figure in France's Romantic movement, he is most famous for the novels Les Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris.


Tove Jansson
Author of Original

The legendary creator of The Moomins, Tove Jansson (1914 – 2001), was born in 1914 in Helingsfors, Finland. Her mother was a charicaturist and the designer of many of Finland’s stamps, and her father was a sculptor. Tove studied painting in Finland, Sweden and France and later worked as a book illustrator, a designer and strip cartoonist, as well as being involved in theatre décor and making frescoes in public places. She drew her first Moomin in the 1930s, just for fun, to tease her little brother by drawing the ugliest creature she could think of. Moomin developed a nicer snout and character and in 1939 he became a character in a children’s story. The Finn Family Moomingtroll has been a hugely successful book, translated into many languages – many other Moomin stories followed.

In 1966 Tove Jansson was awarded the Hans Christian Andersen Medal – an international award for the best children’s book of the year.


Franz Kafka
Author of Original

The original author of The Trial. Franz Kafka (1883–1924) was a major fiction writer of the early 20th century. He was born in Prague, Bohemia (now the Czech Republic). Most of his work, including The Trial, was published after his death.

He is considered to be among the most influential writers in Western literature.


Stanislaw Lem
Author of Original

Lem is a bestselling Polish science fiction writer, Stanislaw Lem (1921 – 2006), renowned for creating Solaris.


H.P. Lovecraft
Author of Original

The original author of At the Mountains of Madness. Howard Phillips Lovecraft (1890–1937) was born and raised in Providence, Rhode Island. A child prodigy, Lovecraft developed an early interest in chemistry and astronomy, although his sickly disposition and a history of night terrors prevented him from completing his schooling. Periods of nervous breakdown and depression followed, contributing to the cynical and unsettling world view displayed in his writing.

Initially a poet and prodigious letter writer, Lovecraft started writing fiction in his twenties. Although his work was not widely read during his lifetime, Lovecraft is now recognised as one of the 20th century’s most influential writers of the macabre.


Sir Thomas Malory
Author of Original

Sir Thomas Malory,  (flourished c. 1470), English writer whose identity remains uncertain but whose name is famous as that of the author of Le Morte Darthur, the first prose account in English of the rise and fall of the legendary king Arthur and the fellowship of the Round Table.

Even in the 16th century Malory’s identity was unknown, although there was a tradition that he was a Welshman. In the colophon to Le Morte Darthur the author, calling himself “Syr Thomas Maleore knyght,” says that he finished the work in the ninth year of the reign of Edward IV (i.e., March 4, ... (100 of 417 words)


Edgar Allan Poe
Author of Original

Edgar Allan Poe (1809–49) was an American writer, poet, editor and literary critic. Part of the American Romantic Movement, he is best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre.

Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective-fiction genre.


Edgar Rice Burroughs
Author of Original

Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875 – 1950) is best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan and the heroic Mars adventurer John Carter. His popular science fiction and fantasy stories have influenced many of the greatest genre writers of the last century.


William Shakespeare
Author of Original

William Shakespeare (1564–1616) is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. His surviving works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.


Laurence Sterne
Author of Original

The original author of The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. Laurence Sterne (1713–68) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. His best-known novel, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, has come to be seen as one of the greatest comic novels in the English language.


Robert Louis Stevenson
Author of Original

The original author of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Robert Louis Stevenson (1850–94) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist and travel writer. He studied engineering and then law at the University of Edinburgh, but turned eventually to a life of letters. He left Scotland after his studies, and lived in France and the United States, before moving to an island in Samoa, where he died of consumption.


Donald Westlake
Author of Original

The original author of The Hot Rock. Donald Westlake, described by Newsweek as “one of the great writers of the 20th century”, wrote over 100 crime novels in his lifetime. He was a winner of three Edgar awards, a Mystery Writers of America Grand Master, and gained an Academy Award nomination for his screenplay of The Grifters. Many of his books have been made into movies, including The Hot Rock, The Hunter, which became the brilliant film noir Point Blank, and the 1999 smash hit Payback.


Oscar Wilde
Author of Original

The original author of The Picture of Dorian Gray. Oscar Wilde (1854–1900) was an Irish playwright, poet and author of numerous short stories and one novel. Known for his biting wit, he became one of the most successful playwrights of the late Victorian era in London.